Death anniversary of Mohammad Hosein Loghman Adham: Founder of Modern Iranian Medicine
Today is Amordad Amshaspand and month of Aban, the seventh day of Aban in the year 3759 Zoroastrian calendar, Saturday, 1th of Aban, 1400 solar, 23 October, 2021 AD.
On Aban 1, 1329, AH, Mohammad Hassan Loghman, known as loghman al-Dowleh and Moin al-Ataba, an Iranian physician and the first dean of the medical school of the University of Tehran, died. With his efforts the foundations of the medical, pharmaceutical and dental schools of Tehran and Pasteur Institute of Iran were laid.
In 1295 AH, he became medical director at Dar al-Fonoun school and established the first medical school. He separated the medicine class from Dar al-Fonoun and in 1297, turned it into a medical school. Later, when the University of Tehran was founded and started working, he became the first dean of its medical school. The establishment of the medical school and its anatomy hall, and the school of pharmacy are among his other services during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi. He spent 50 years of his life training physicians and expanding attention on health related matters. Hence, in 1328, after his 50 years of service, a celebration was held in the Culture Hall by the Ministry of Culture, the University of Tehran, and the Iranian Academy. In this celebration, he was awarded the Homayouni Medal and the Science Medal. In gratitude for his health services, the Ministry of Health named his 300-bed hospital after him on Dey 15, 1330 AH the Ministry of Health named its 300-bed hospital after him. Until 1362, the hospital was known as Loghman Al-Dowleh, but its name was changed to Loghman Hakim Medical, Therapeutic and Educational Center in the same year. Dr Adham was awarded the Legion d’honneur order of France, the Order of Victoria of England, the Red Eagle of Germany, Levild of Belgium, and other medals from the governments of Italy, Turkey, and Spain. In Tehran, a street was named after him, renamed Bagheri Komasaei Street after the revolution.
Surely, the Adham family, especially Mohammad Hosein Adham and his brothers, who were the founders of modern schools and the introduction of health related and medical subjects in Iran, have played a unique role in developing this knowledge in Iran. Mohammad Hosein Loghman Adham, Loghman al-Dowleh, was born in 1258 in Tabriz. His father, Mirza Zayn al-Abidin Khan Loghman al-Malik, was a graduate of the Paris Medical School, and he was the special doctor of Prince Mohammad Ali Mirza in Tabriz. One of the worthy deeds of Mohammad Hussein Adham’s father was the Loghmaniyeh School Foundation at his own expense. This school was considered the founder of modern civilization in Azerbaijan. After completing his primary and secondary education in Tabriz, Mohammad Hossein Adham studied Iranian medicine with his professors and father. During the dictatorship minor (Qajar era) and the cannonade of the parliament, he helped several freedom fighters escape from the prison in “Bagh-e Shah”, and himself sent to Paris to study medicine there.
On his return, he became Ahmad Shah’s physician and received the title of Loghman al-Dowleh from him. Mohammad Hassan Adham accompanied Ahmad Shah on his trip to Europe. During his visit to the Pasteur Institute, he encouraged Ahmad Shah to establish such an institute in Iran, for which he hired Dr. Menard of France and brought him to Iran. In 1312, he was appointed as Reza Shah’s doctor. Mohammad Hossein Adham was the dean of Tehran Medical School for five years. But, in 1317 AH, due to illness he resigned from his post as dean of medical school and from other government services. He spent the rest of his life serving the people, teaching general diseases and diagnosing diseases, and donating 600 books from his library.
Finally, this famous physician passed away on the 1st of Aban 1329 in Tehran at the age of 71 and was buried in Zahir al-Dowleh cemetery next to Iran’s famed characters such as Mohammad Taghi Bahar, Iraj Mirza, Rashid Yasemi, Rahi Moayeri, Mohammad Massoud, Abolhassan Saba, Ruhollah Khalaqi, Ghamralmoluk Vaziri, Professor Hossein Tehrani and many other prominent Iranian artists.
In the material world, Amshaspand Amordad’s duty is to guard the plants on the earth and keep them green and fertile. Amshaspand Amordad is a symbol of immortality, eternity, and eternal youth.
In Bundahishn we read the following about this lady Ameshaspasd: Amartat with endless life, king of all plants. In Farashgard (reviving the world), Saoshyant and the modernization of the world will also come from Amordad. If anyone grows plants or harms them Amordad will either be relieved or annoyed. Amordad Amshaspand is always associated with Khordad Amshaspand (guardian of waters). In this world, she is committed to the care of plants and flowers.
Amartat, meaning immortality, permanence and eternity, is the name of the 7th day of each month and the name of the 5th month of the year. “A” (the first letter in Amartat) gives the meaning of negative, “mar” means death and “tat” is a suffix that is given to it in Persian language. She is the guardian of plants and vegetation in creation; Amshaspandan Khordad and Amordad are always together. The person who can gain these two characters in life and accomplish attainment will automatically achieve immortality and immortality. Ahuramazda revels and gives the immortality of Amordad to someone whose thoughts, words, and deeds are good in the world. It is considered good to think and plan about the future on this day.
In Avesta, this word is Amortat, and in Persian, it is Amordad, so Amordad means immortality and strength or eternity. Thus the word “Mordad” has no place in Zoroastrian literature. Amordad is one of the Amshaspandans with whom she guards the plants. They are always with Amshaspand Haorvatat or Khordad.
In the Zoroastrian calendar, Zoroastrians celebrate that day when the name of the day and the month are the same. The arrival of the day of Amordad in the month of Amordad is called the celebration of Amordadgan. Iris is the symbol of Amordad Amshaspand.
In the Ghata, Yasna 51, verse 7, we read: The one reaches the seven categories, Ahuramazda, Ravan, benevolence, the best truth, spiritual Kingship, holy goal, accessibility and immaturity, immortality and goes on the path of truth, will be rewarded by the forgiveness of Ahuramazda’s two angles, rejoice of Khordad and immortality of Amordad.