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Today is Tir Izad, the 13th day in the Zoroastrian calendar, Aban 17 SH

Suppression of Colonel Pessian’s Supporters

Today is Tir Izad of the month of Aban, 13th of Aban of the year 3759 Zoroastrian calendar; Friday, 7th Aban, the year 1400 official calendar, and October 29, 2021 AD.

One century ago, on Aban1300 (October 1921) and a month after the assassination of Colonel Mohammad-Taqi Khan Pessian, Cossack forces started to suppress the uprising in Khorasan by his supporters.

The Cossack forces who were sent from Tehran to Mashhad under Hossein Mir Agha Panj (Major General Hossein Khazaei), a month after the death of Colonel Mohammad-Taqi Khan Pessian, severely suppressed his supporters in Khorasan. Some were executed and dozens others were imprisoned. Hossein Agha Mirpanj had threatened the survivors of this uprising that they would be brutally killed if they did not stop their revolt and give up their weapons.

Colonel Mohammad Taqi Khan, outraged by the interference of foreigners in his homeland’s affairs and the betrayal or silence of the leaders of the time, led a national uprising in Khorasan and achieved some success, but was murdered as a result of conspiracy and complicity.

Before this uprising, he and his gendarmes had forced the far larger and better-equipped Russian forces to retreat from Hamedan and thus liberated the city. The colonel was angry of European forces in his homeland and considered many of the leaders of the time to be traitors and friends of the enemy. Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessian was born in Tabriz in 1270 AH. After his primary education in a one-room school, he joined Loghmanieh School in Tabriz, in 1270 AH. At the age of 15, he came to Tehran to continue is education in the military school and it was then that he joined the supporters of the constitutionalism. When the gendarmerie was established he became a member and was employed by this institution after the constitution’s victory.

Being fluent in French, he became translator of Captain Harald Ossian Hialmarson, the head of the gendarmerie, and was later given many military missions, which he completed and was able to pass military ranks one after another.

When the WWI started, he joined the libertarians who were strongly against the presence of the Russians and the British, and became governor and head of the gendarmerie in the Kermanshah-based immigrant cabinet; but, we know that the immigrant committee did not last long, and its members each went somewhere, and Colonel Pessian went to Germany to continue his education and treatment, where, by chance, he met a German military commander, who invited colonel to join the German army. Thus, Colonel Pessian entered the German army, received aviation training, and flew by plane, registered as the first Iranian pilot in history. The colonel fought against Russian forces on the Polish front, but WWI, which was followed by the defeat of Germany, forced the colonel to leave the German army and remain in Germany for some time. He pursued his education, studied music and later returned to Iran.

The 13th day of each month (Zoroastrian calendar) and the fourth month of each year is named Tir. Tir or Tishter is the god of rain, and with his help, the fields are irrigated by rain. He is also the protector of cattle. Tishtar Yasht is one Yashts of Avesta. The star of Mercury is called Tir, and also the bow that is pulled and sent off the arrow. Ancient Iranians would hold a special ceremony on this day, during drought, and pray for Iran and victory of Tir Izad over the demon of drought (Apush). They would go outdoors, towards the fields and would recite Tir Yasht. Part of the Yasht prayers in Avesta, about this Izad. This star is Silius in Latin.

Aban 7 events:

7th Aban; day of Cyrus the Great, anniversary of the birth of human rights, around the world

The 7th of Aban is the anniversary of the arrival of Cyrus the Great in Babylon. In this city, Cyrus the Great proclaimed human rights, and the cylindrical tablet with its inscription has survived ever since and is considered the first human rights declaration.

In the “Babylonian Chronicle of Naboo-Naid” translated by Dr. Abdul Majid Arfaee, researcher, specialist, and translator of ancient Akkadian and Elamite languages, it is written about this historical event: “In the month of Arahsamnu, the eighth month, the third day (equivalent to the seventh of Aban) Cyrus entered Babylon. Green branches were spread under his feet.  Peace was established in the city.  Cyrus sent greetings of joy to all the cities and lands of Babylon.

According to the historical inscription “Chronicle of the Prophet-Naid,” which survives from 2500 years ago, on the third day of the month of Arkhsmano (based on the Babylonian calendar equal to October 29, Aban 7), in 539 BC, Cyrus went to that city after the liberation of Babylon. The people welcomed him with open arms. Dr. Ahmad Birshak, in his book “Iranian Calendar,” on the compatibility of the Babylonian calendar months with the Achaemenid, emphasizes the conformity of “araxsamna” of the eighth month of the Babylonian calendar with (Markašanaš) the eighth month of the Achaemenid calendar.


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