Death memorial of Malek Malekzadeh; an Archaeologist and founder of the Coin Museum
Today is the blessed day of Geush Izad, Nabor day, the day of abstention from eating meat, the 14th of Khordad in the year 3759 Zoroastrian calendar, the 12th of Khordad the year 1400 solar, the 2nd of June 2021 AD.
On 12th of Khordad, 1377 (solar calendar) Malek Malekzadeh “Bayani”, an archaeologist and a prominent figure in numismatics, founder of the Bank Sepah museum in Tehran, passed away. She was an expert and a member of the International Numismatic Associations of France, Switzerland, and UNESCO.
In addition to teaching at the University of Tehran, she was the director of the coins, stamps, and tablets section of the Museum of Ancient Iran. It is to be noted that she was the first numismatist in Iran to specialize scientifically and academically.
Dr Malekzadeh, one of the precursor women in Iran, and the first to use scientific method in teaching numismatics and seal studies, was also a master of painting and Persian miniature and left behind valuable paintings.
The name of this Iranian scientist is included in the list of world science and culture celebrities and in the list of famous world women in science, culture and art, in a book created by the University of Cambridge, England, another important initiative that Malekzadeh took was to establish a UNESCO branch in Iran.
She was the daughter of Dr. Mahdi Malekzadeh, one of the founders of modern medical science in Iran and the author of the book History of Constitutionalism in Iran, the granddaughter of Malek-ol Motekalemin and Mirza Soleiman Meykadeh, a famed noble of the Qajar period, and a libertarian.
Born in 1289 in Tehran, Malekzadeh had her primary and secondary education in Namus School, like her mother, and then succeeded in obtaining a diploma in the French language from Jandark School with honor ranks. Having an innate artistic talent, she tended to study painting and studied Persian miniature with the great teacher of Persian miniatures, Mirza Hadi Khan Tajvidi. She learned classical western painting from Master Rahimzadeh Arzhang and Mir Mosavar.
From 1313, she studied painting at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and at the same time, she succeeded in receiving a master’s degree in archeology and numismatics simultaneously from the Louvre Sorbonne in Paris, where she outshined in numismatics.
She returned to Iran in 1317, after four years, and was selected as the director of the coins, stamps, and tablets section of the Museum of Ancient Iran, the National Museum of Iran. In the national museum of Iran, the section for coins and stamps was set up through her efforts and based on modern knowledge. Teaching numismatics and seals in the Department of Archeology and Art History of the University of Tehran is one of the other activities of this Iranian scientist, which continued from 1347 to 1357, which was her retirement year. She was fluent in French and English and a master of ancient scripts.
Mrs. Malekzadeh married Dr. Khanbaba Bayani, Professor of History at the University of Tehran. They have two children, Dr. Shirin Bayani (Islami Nodooshan) and Dr. Susan Bayani (Samiei), both well-known professors at the University of Tehran: Shirin Bayani in the Department of history and susan Bayani in the Department of archeology of this university. Malek Malekzadeh died at the age of 88.
About 50 articles in Persian and French have been published by Malekzadeh in creditable national and international journals, mainly about coins and seals of antiquity and coins of the Islamic period of Iran. Among her books are the following:
The image of kings and famed personalities of ancient Iran, Tehran: Central Council of the Imperial Iranian Celebration, 1349
Ancient capitals of Iran. The Society for the National Heritage of Iran Publications, 1349
Sassanid art, in French, Tehran: Imperial celebration of Iran, 1350
The history of coins from the earliest times to the Parthian period. Volume One, University of Tehran Press, 1355
Coin history, Parthian period. Volume 2, University of Tehran Press, 1357
The image of the prominent figures of Iran, in collaboration with Dr. Khanbaba Bayani. Society for the National Heritage of Iran Publication, 1358
Iranian coins during the Achaemenid period. The National Heritage of Iran Publication, 1358
History of Seal in Iran. Yazdan Publications, 1364
Activities and honors:
Founder of the Sepah Bank Coin Museum
Founder of Iran Historical and Art Exhibition, and founder of Iran-Italy Cultural Relations Association in Italy
Organizing and directing the exhibition of seven thousand years of Iranian art in Milan, Italy
Member of the International Association of Numismatists, headquartered in France and Switzerland
Being one of Iran’s most famous contemporary painters, her method was “Impressionism,” but she has also worked in classic and miniature techniques.
Membership in UNESCO “Iran Branch” in the first period of the founding of this scientific-cultural institute in Iran.
The “Geush” Day: the name of this Izad in Avesta is “Gaush” which means the world. The fourteenth day of each month is associated with this Izad. Geush Izad is the guardian of the whole universe. This day is one of the four days of abstaining from eating meat. Zoroastrians call this day “Nabor” and avoid killing animals and eating meat. It is said that this day should be celebrated.
Today, the day Geush Izad is the fourteenth day of the Zoroastrian calendar. According to the Zoroastrian calendar, which dates back to pre-Islamic periods, each month has 30 days, and each of these 30 days have name, and today is the day called “Geush”. Geush is an Izad (divine). The name Izad is used for praiseworthy creations, that is, the good and divine creations that are worthy of praise.. Geush Izad is so praiseworthy that even one of the Avesta Yashts is dedicated to this Izad. “Geush Yasht” or “Drvaspa Yasht” is the Yasht in which “Geush Izad” is mentioned.”
The word “Geush” or “Gaush” is mentioned many times in “Gathas” (poems of Ashu Zartosht), in “Avesta,” and in Pahlavi scripts. The word gaush has several meanings that must be understood in the sentence, like many other words.
This word means “the universe” and “the whole of creation”, and it also means “cow”. Of course, this meaning, i.e., “cow” in Iranian mythology, is the same as “creation” or “the universe”. In Avesta, Geush or Gaush means both cow and universe (giti). “Urva,” which means spirit (rowan), along with the word geush, carries the meaning of the spirit of the world or the spirit of a cow. “Geushurvan” is a keeper of herds and livestock. The “cow” in Iranian mythology is a symbol of the universe and a symbol of earthly life from a philosophical point of view.
Iranians believed that Geush Izad is the guardian and defender of valuable animals, and this mission is in agreement with the meaning of the name of this Izad. Therefore, in other words, harming useful animals means harming the creation, and harming the universe.
Geush izad rushes to the aid of “Vahman Amshaspand” with the help of “Mah Izad” and “Ram Izad” to protect valuable animals. So, mah Izad, Ram Iyazd and Geush izad are the partners of “Vahman Amshaspand” in this mission.
Zoroastrians have long avoided killing animals and eating their meat during these four days, and this is done to protect the number of animals and human health. Avoiding killing animals and eating their meat, is like a general agreement among Zoroastrians, to keep the animals safe during these four days.
Let us imagine that this agreement goes beyond this small community (Zoroastrian community), then all the people of the world are supposed to avoid killing animals on these 4 days; Undoubtedly, the number of killing animals will be significantly reduced, and on the other hand, it will be an exercise for humans to eat vegetables.
Every month, the day “Geush” reminds us of the creation. Geush Izad, like Ram Izad and Mah Izad, and Vahuman Amshaspand, is a reminder that we do not forget that we are part of this collection, if we hurt a part of the universe, we will be offended. It is said that this day should be celebrated.
Andarz ī Adurbād ī Mahraspandān (Mobed-e Mobedan in Shapur II time)
Train Geushurvan, teach a cow to farm