Death Memorial of Sur-e Esrafil: Journalist of the Iranian constitutional period
Today is the blessed day of Khordad Amshaspand, the second day of public worship in Pirnarestan, the sixth of Tir in the year 3759 Zoroastrian calendar, Thursday, Tir 3, 1400, June 24, 2021 AD.
On the 3rd of Tir, 1287, Mirza Jahangir Khan, known as Jahangir Khan Shirazi or Jahangir Khan Sur-e Esrafil, a journalist of the Iranian constitutional period, was arrested after the Bombardment of the Majlis was captived and killed in the Shahbagh of Tehran.
Mirza Jahangir Khan Shirazi, director of the “Sur-e Esrafil” newspaper was nicknamed Sur-e esrafil, after his newspaper. Born in 1292 AH in Shiraz, his father died as a child, and his aunt took care of him. They moved to Tehran when he was five and returned to Shiraz when he was 14 and studied there. He studied literature, logic, and mathematics with the professors of the time. In 1311 AH, he left for Tehran again and gained new knowledge and techniques in Dar-ol-Fonun and other high schools in Tehran. At this time, the constitutional movement began, and he entered the secret societies and gatherings of the Iranians.
Mirza Jahangir, with the wealth of Mirza Qasem Tabrizi and the cooperation of Mirza Ali Akbar Qazvini (Dehkhoda), founded a newspaper called Sur-e Esrafil. But this newspaper encountered challenges; the author was excommunicated several times, and his journalism tools and equipment were destroyed several times. After the bombardment of the Majlis (parliament), was arrested and killed in Bagh-e Shah, Tehran. By the orders of Mohammad Ali Shah, he was killed in Baghshah after being tortured in front of Mohammad Ali Shah, along with the Malek al-Motekalemin and Ghazi Ardaghi. His tomb is located in Tehran, on Makhsus Str next to Loghman Hospital, Shahid Ebrahimi Alley, at the end of the alley, blue door on the left. They are said to have been secretly brought there and buried overnight in the house’s courtyard where he and the Malek al-Motekalemin were executed. The tombs are located in the yard of an old property – the owner of which is not available – and destroyed. Loghman Hospital also plans to expand the hospital space, and it seems that these tombs will be destroyed in the hospital plan.
Khordad is the name of the sixth day of each month in the Zoroastrian calendar. It is the fifth Amshaspand and the guardian of water and greenery. Khordad in Avesta is pronounced “Heurvatat”, and in Pahlavi is “Khordat” or “Hordat” meaning ordinance and perfection, which in the Gathas is one of the characters of Ahura Mazda and in the New Avesta it is the name of one of the seven Amshaspands and the symbol of Ahura Mazda. The first part of the word “heurva” is an adjective meaning ordinant, full, right and complete. The second part “tat” is a suffix for noun. “Heurvatat” represents ordinance and perfection of Ahura Mazda.
Khordad Amshaspand is a lady who is responsible for protecting all waters on earth and she helps the thirsty to overcome their thirst. Therefore, as a custom, she is remembered in goodness when drinking water. On this earth she is a guardian of waters. Baad Izad, Tir Izad and Farvardin Izad are Khordad’s associates.
In the Gathas, Khordad and Amordad are constantly mentioned together. In the New Avesta, these two Amshaspands are the guardians of the waters and plants that come to the aid of the people to defeat their thirst and hunger.
In Yasna, verse 47, it is stated that Ahura Mazda will reach out and give immortality of Amordad to the one whose thoughts, words and deeds are in accordance with the religion of truth and honesty.
In the ancient texts of Amshaspand Khordad: The fourth Yasht of the twenty-one yasht of Avesta is dedicated to the praise and worship of Amshaspand Lady Khordad, in which Yasht Ahura Mazda speaks about creating Khordad to help the pure people achieve salvation, peace and prosperity”. And then, it is emphasized that whoever praises Khordad is like one who has honored all Amshaspandans. In Bundahishn it is also mentioned about Khordad: “From all the creations in the universe she accepted the responsibility of the waters and says that life, birth and the growth of all living being on earth is from water, and therefore the earth’s prosperity is because of her.”