Amordad News
Today is Shahrivar Amshaspand, the fourth day of the Zoroastrian calendar; first day of Tir of the official solar calendar

Happy longest day of the year

Today is the blessed day of Shahrivar Amshaspand, the 4th of Tir in the year 3759 Zoroastrian calendar, Tuesday, the first day of Tir the year 1400 solar, June 22, 2021 AD.

The 1st of Tir, the celebration of the sun, celebration of the source of light, celebration of summer, when the sun reaches its highest position at the peak of brightness and light.

Iranians have always had a positive approach towards the ecosystem, have always respected the biological phenomena, and have celebrated the longest day of the year (90 days after the New Year), just as they have celebrated the longest night of the year (cheleh). They knew well that just as against the two moderation points such as the beginning of spring and autumn, the equality of night and day, the two points of the revolution, the beginning of summer and winter, the longest day of the year and the longest night of the year, exist, so celebrate the longest day of the year.

Tir 1 in the solar calendar equals the summer solstice. The summer solstice is when the sun reaches its maximum celestial space and provides the slightest possible shadow for us, the people of the northern hemisphere. On this day, the people of the southern hemisphere experience the winter solstice and the longest night of the year. This event takes place from Khordad 31 to Tir 1, approximately 92 days and 18 hours after the New Year. Tir 1 is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere because on this day, the sun stays in the sky for a part of a second longer than in previous days and will make the day longer. Because the Earth moves around its axis at 23.5 degrees on a particular day of the year and the distance between the polar region and the sun is minimized, this phenomenon, also known as the summer solstice, occurs in some years. It happens on Khordad 30 (June 20), and in some years, it appears on Khordad 31 (June 21) or first of Tir. This phenomenon has also been known in the past. In Iran, the celebration of Niloufar (Lilly) or  Cheleh Tamuz has been associated with this phenomenon. And in the old days, even though there were no precise instruments for measuring time, only chartaqiyas and cup home or blue clocks were used until more or less the sundial. But with these simple tools, they determined the longest day of the year and the shortest day of the year with a slight difference.

Now-a-days, the beginning of each cheleh (40 days) of the year is in the first days of Farvardin, Tir 1, Mehr, and Dey. Khorasan is one of the places where the celebration of cheleh tamuz still more or less exists.  In the local calendar of Birjand, “cheleh bozorg” of the summer starts on the Tir 1st and lasts until the 10th of Amordad, and “Cheleh Khord” summer starts on the 10th of Amordad and continues until the 30th of this month. In the south of Khorasan, from the 1st of Tir to the 10th of Amordad, it is called “Cheleh Tamuz.” From the 10th of Amordad to the end of this month, it is called “Cheleh Khord,” and ‘cheleh khord” in summer starts on 10th of Amordad, it is called “Cheleh Kloo,” from 10th of February to the end of this month. They say “cheleh khord.”

Before the summer solstice, an event that is important from the solar calendar’s point of view was the vernal equinox, which is the beginning of spring and the solar new year. Ever since the sun was in the middle of the sky, to this day, the sun has risen a little higher in the sky, in addition to the daily movement of its rising and setting, until today when the disposition of the sun has reached its maximum. After the summer solstice and during the summer, the sun’s disposition gradually decreases to reach the same level of the spring balance day, equal to the autumn balance and the first of Mehr.

Xšathra, in Avesta, is the name of the third feature of Ahuramazda from the group of Amshaspandan Xšathra vairya, or Shahrivar means “Monarchy and the power of Ahura”, the name of the third ameshaspand. This Amshaspand is a symbol of victory because her main task is to protect metals. In Avesta, she is a symbol of the power and glory of the kingdom of Ahuramazda. She is entrusted with guarding the metal on earth.

In the Zoroastrian calendar, the fourth day of each month is named Shahrivar.  According to tradition whenever the name of the day and name of the month are same, that day was honored, praised and the good creatures of Ahura Mazda were worshiped. The equality of the day of Shahrivar with the name of Shahrivar in the Zoroastrian calendar was called Shahrivargan. Shahrivargan celebration, the day of Shahrivar, from the month of Shahrivar, which is the 30th day of Amordad and is called the powerful Amshaspand “Xšathra vairya,” meaning the heavenly country or the ideal and worthy monarchy.

In modern Persian, the word Xšathra is called Shahrivar, and in Sanskrit, it is called Xšathra kšathra because there was a unique and complicated connection in Indo-Iranian religion in ancient times. In Indian religion, it means powerful, but in Iranian religion, this concept is much broader. In the light of good deeds and the divine power the divine rule is created in which Asha becomes victorious and human beings are saved from humiliation and misery.  Zarathushtra wishes that all the people of the world carry on their activities and their lives under the rule of truthfulness and righteousness.  It is only through the rule of righteousness that human beings are able to eliminate signs of destruction that stem from falsehood and replace wrong with right.

Xšathra vairya is the power of victory and self-rule. Xšathra vairya is the power that governs the emotions in the inner world of man. This word has been mentioned 62 times in the Gathas.

In his book “The remaining signs of past centuries”, Abu Rayhan al Biruni talks about this ancient Iranian celebration: “Shahrivar, which is the fourth day of Shahrivar, and is celebrated because of the coinciding of the day and month, both called Sharivar.  Shahrivar means friendship and hope.”

Shahrivar (Amshaspand), Xšathra Vairya, is the name of one of the Zoroastrian Amshaspand. In Avesta, it is “Xšathra Vairya,” and in Pahlavi (Middle Persian) is “Shahrvar,” and in Persian, “Shahrivar” or “Shahriar.” The first part of this word means monarchy and city (the meaning of the city is the country, as the land of Iran was called, the city of Iran). The second part of this word, “Vairya,” is an adjective and means “desired”.  Therefore, Xsathra Vairya means an ideal city or an ideal monarchy, or the ability of a perfect Minoo. In Zoroastrian and Persian mythology, this Amshaspand symbolizes the ruler and charisma, and the leadership of Ahura mazda, and is also the guardian of metals, and the protector of the honor and victories of the just rulers, and supporter of the miserables and the benefactor of the poor.

In this world, she is the guardian of metals. The Ahuraian monarchy arises from the law of Asha (the model of existence) and covers the whole world. On this day it is good to propose into marriage.

In Bundahishn, which is one of the ancient Iranian books, a demon named Savol is mentioned, who is a demon of chaos and destruction and is one of the enemies and opponents of Shahrivar. On the other hand, Izads such as Izad Khor, Izad Mehr, and Izad Aseman are her companions and colleagues

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