Commemoration of Abu Rayhan al-Biruni
Today is a holy day of Rashn Izad and the month of Shahrivar, the 18th of Shahrivar in the year of 3759 Zoroastrian calendar, Saturday, Shahrivar 13, 1400 solar, September 4, 2021
More than 1000 years have passed since the birth of Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, the incredible man of history, a mathematician and astronomer, and at the same time a mast in the fields of history, literature, philosophy, natural sciences, geometry, anthropologist, geologist and historian of Iran. In many countries he is known as the “All time master”.
In Iran, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni’s birthday is celebrated as National Astronomy Day and the day of the Surveyor Engineer Day. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, the great Iranian scientist, was born on 13 Shahrivar 352 solar, in Kharazm, in a small village in the outskirts of Kath County, the ancient city in Kharazm. For this reason he became famous as Biruni, meaning from the outskirts (outside the city). Kath is presently located in Uzbekistan. Khorasan was ruled by the Samanid dynasty at that time. The people of the ancient Kath are of Iranian descent.
In mathematics, astronomy, space science, physics, geology and geography, Biruni excelled over all others of his time. The encyclopedia of Science, printed in Moscow, has called Abu Rihan a scientist for all times. He was a thinker who, with his mastering various sciences of his time, won the admiration of his contemporaries and also those after his period. A thinker who, by mastering various sciences, aroused the admiration of his contemporaries and beyond. Some universities, colleges and libraries in many countries were named after him.
He has precisely calculated and explained the sun’s rotation, the axial rotation of the earth and the north and south directions. He observed the April 8, 1019, solar eclipse in the Laghman Mountains of “present-day Afghanistan” and studied the September lunar eclipse in Ghazni that year.
In his time the Samanid’s, whose capital was Bukhara, ruled over the north/east of Iran, which included greater Khorasan and the Kharazm region. The ziaran’s ruled over Gorgan and Mazandaran and some areas around them; and the Buyids ruled over the greater Sistan, Qaznavian’s over the south of Iran, central parts of Iran and the south of present day Afghanistan, and the Boyid’s over the rest of Iran, upto Baghdad. All these rulers encouraged science, literature and the Persian language. But, the Samanid’s were more perseverant than the other rulers. Biruni spend some years in Jorjaniyeh of Kharazm, studing science next to Abu Nasr Mansour. He also did some years of research in Gorgan under the spiritual and financial support of the Ziarian dynasty, whose founder was Mardaviz. After that time and till the end of his life, he lived in the eastern Iran of those days, and continued his scientific research. Though Mahmoud Qaznavi did not have a good relationship with Biruni and did not support him in his researches, this scientist never wasted a moment in his efforts to complete his researches.
He was fluent in Greek, Hindi, and Arabic and wrote countless books and treatises, numbering more than 146, summing up to more than 13,000 lines.
Abu Rayhan wrote about 143 books during his 72 years of life. His most important works are: “Al-Tafhim” in mathematics and astronomy, “Al-Baqiyeh in history and geography, “Masoud Law”, which is an encyclopedia, and the book named: India” which is about the history, geography, customs and social classes of this land. This number brings his writings to 12,000 pages.
Biruni gave the name of sultan Masoud Qaznavi, the then ruler, to his encyclopedia. But, did not accept the gift from the Sultan, which was 3 camel loads of silver coins, explaining to him in writing that his purpose in writing his book was to serve and to spread knowledge, and not for money. Biruni was a contemporary of bu Ali Sina, who lived in Isfahan, and they exchanged their thoughts and ideas through correspondence. During Mahmud Ghaznavi’s expeditions to western India, part of present-day Pakistan, Biruni was able to go to that land, learn Hindi, and research the situation in India, the result of which is his book “India.”
Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, the master of all sciences, passed away on December 13, 1047, at age 75 in Ghazni, eastern Afghanistan, and was buried there. His tomb is one of the most forgotten tombs of the past honors of this land.
In the Zoroastrian calendar, the year is divided into 12 months of 30 days each day with a name. The 18th day of each month is named Rashn.
Today is the 18th day of the month in this calendar, which is called “Rashn”. Rashan (Rashno) – God of justice and divine judgement, God of righteousness and justice and one of the Izads of the after world and one of the judges of the day of judgement. Rashn Izad is an enemy of thieves and bandits. In the prayers in praise of Rashn, after praising Dadar Urmazd, there is reference to Rashn, the bearer of the judgement scale. The Izad of justice is also one of the Izads helping Amordad Ameshaspand, along with Mehr and Sraosha Izads.
Rashn Yasht is the 12th Yasht of Avesta worshipping Rashn Izad.
Sweetbriar is the flower symbolizing Rashn Izad.
In the list of Iranian days, in his book “AL-Athar Al-Baqiyeh” (p.73) Biuni has called this Izad Rashn. In the Sogdian language it is called Rasn in Khwarazmi. In Persian literature, this word is used as “rash” without N.
Some great poets, including Ferdowsi, Khowsravi and Masud Saad wrote poems about Rashn Izad.
- Corporation day
- Anniversary of Aligoli Bayani’s death; (Born on Bahman 15, 1291 in Tehran – Died on Shahrivar 13, 1388 in Tehran) Writer, translator and dam construction engineer
- Anniversary of the death of Mohsen Hashtroodi; (Born on Dey 22, 1285 in Tabriz – passed away on Shahrivar 13, 1353 in Tehran) scientist, poet and mathematician